BIA for Physicians

Acta Diabetol. 2003 Oct;40 Suppl 1:S151-3.

Body composition assessment: an indispensable tool for disease management.

Battezzati A, Bertoli S, Testolin C, Testolin G.

International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status, University of Milan, Via Colombo 60, I-20133, Milan, Italy.

Recent conceptual and technology advancements fostered a rapid development in the field of body composition assessment and provided new and powerful investigative tools. Densitometry, isotopic dilution, bioelectrical impedance, whole-body counting, neutron activation, X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and spectroscopy have been the most widely employed methods. The result of this effort is the discovery that body composition at both molecular and cellular or tissue levels is affected by virtually all the pathologic conditions found in medical textbooks. The field is now mature for the clinical translation of this research. Some applications rely on a very solid base and their clinical use has been fully codified. Others still need reference values diversified on a regional and ethnic scale, consensus for interpretation of values, and guidelines for clinical indications. Only after these requirements are satisfied will it be possible to adopt specific practical guidelines, the most reasonable basis for acceptance and accreditation by care providers. Some applications are already being used in several settings. Therefore, establishing the guidelines for clinical application of body composition assessment methods is not only important for physicians and their patients, but is also urgent so as to prevent misuse and to ensure correct communication with the media in this field.

Acta Diabetol. 2003 Oct;40 Suppl 1:S154-7.

Body composition in disease: what can we measure and how can we measure it?

Van Loan MD.

US Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

This manuscript presents a brief overview of the topic of body composition in disease. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1). to present examples of diseases in which body composition assessment might provide valuable information to physicians and other clinical personnel in patient care; (2). provide basic information on the types of methodologies available for various aspects of body composition assessment; and (3). give a brief review of some of the research literature available on the topic of body composition use in disease. Materials in this paper should not be interpreted as providing all the relevant information in this area of research, but the paper does represent a limited overview of the topic.

Acta Diabetol. 2003 Oct;40 Suppl 1:S270-3.

Pediatric body composition in clinical studies: which methods in which situations?

Pietrobelli A, Peroni DG, Faith MS.

Pediatric Unit, School of Medicine, University of Verona Policlinic “GB Rossi”, Via delle Menegone 10, I-37134, Verona, Italy.

There is currently much interest in the subject of pediatric obesity. Accurate measures of body composition are required given the potential influence of variables such as growth, metabolic rate, physical activity, and physical fitness. Because boys and girls have a different growth pattern, gender is a fundamental consideration when measuring children and assessing body composition. The central aim of this paper is to review methods of pediatric body composition assessment that can provide new insights for clinical practice.

Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Sep;64(3 Suppl):423S-427S.

Clinical characteristics influencing bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements.

Kushner RF, Gudivaka R, Schoeller DA.

Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, University of Chicago, IL, USA.

Standardization of measurement conditions is essential for obtaining accurate, precise, and reproducible bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) data. Errors due to lack of measurement control are propagated in subsequent calculations of body composition and contribute to differences in predictive equations among investigators. Various individual and environmental factors have been shown to influence BIA. We review the factors that have been identified from the literature as being conditions requiring standardization both for healthy subjects and for those in a medical setting.

J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2007 May;19(5):235-41.

Comment in:

J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2007 Oct;19(10):499; discussion 499.

Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis in the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of overweight and obesity.

Ricciardi R, Talbot LA.

Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20012, USA.

PURPOSE: To present an overview of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and to familiarize nurse practitioners (NPs) with the potential benefits of using BIA in prevention, monitoring, and long-term follow-up of healthy individuals and those with chronic conditions (e.g., obesity). DATA SOURCES: Original research articles and comprehensive review articles identified through Medline, CINAHL, OVID, and electrical engineering databases. CONCLUSIONS: Obtaining serial measurements of percent body fat using BIA can identify patients at greatest health risk and gives NPs an additional tool to assess treatment response in patients seeking to lose or maintain body weight and/or increase muscle mass. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Traditionally, height/weight tables and body mass index have been used to assess body composition and diagnose overweight and obesity. More recently, BIA has emerged as a portable and simple-to-operate instrument to evaluate body composition in the clinical setting.

These papers and abstracts of papers have been published in peer-reviewed journals. They may draw conclusions and discuss applications of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis which have not been reviewed by the FDA. Statements made within them are the sole responsibility of the authors. Unless otherwise indicated, no material support was provided to the authors or study investigators by RJL Systems.